List of Additives & All about Vitamins

1 List of additives  List of 'E' Additives
2 All About Vitamins                     *** Read also on Protein Myth ***
3 References: Cooking without Eggs 
4 Some common problems in vitamins, additives
5 " E" Additives

                                                                          List of additives

     (the article has been adapted to suit our needs)


Source: sediment in wine casks during fermentation and storage. Use: in the manufacture of tartaric acid and vinegar from malt. See also cream of tartar and tartaric acid. Ascorbic Acid (vitamin c) - Source: synthetic or corn. Use: nutrient.

               Ascorbate Palmitate                   

Source: synthetic and palm oil. Use: preservative.

Benzoic Acid

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

BHA (Butylated Hydroxanisole)

Source: synthetic. Use: as an antioxidant in cereals, stabilizers, shortenings, and potato flakes and granules. Comes also from corn oil.

BHA (Butylated Hydroxtoluene)

Source: synthetic. Use: as an antioxidant in beverages, desserts, cereals, glazed fruits, dry mixes for beverages, and potato flakes and granules. Comes also from corn oil.

Calcium Alginate
- see Alginate.

                                                                    Calcium Carbonate

Source: limestone. Use: tooth powder and in removing acidity of wine.

Calcium Chloride

Source: synthetic. Use: in canned goods and in cottage and cheddar cheeses as a preservative.

Calcium Citrate

- see Citric Acid.

Calcium Disodium (EDTA)

Source: synthetic. Use: flavor retention in canned soda and canned white potatoes; as a preservative in dressings, egg products, oleomargarine, potato salad, lima beans, mushrooms, pecan pie filling, and spreads.

Calcium Propionate

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Calcium Stearate

Source: a compound of calcium and stearic acid. (Important: see Stearic Acid) Use: anti-caking ingredient in some spices (especially garlic salt and onion salt) and extensively in tablets.
Not vegetarian

Calcium Sorbate

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Calcium Sterol Lactylate

Source: milk or soybeans. Use: instant mashed potatoes.

Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate

Source: chemical reaction of stearic acid and lactic acid. Use: as a dough conditioner, whipping agent and as a conditioner in dehydrated potatoes. Not vegetarian.

Caprylic Acid

Sources: palm oil, coconut oil. Use: preservative and flavoring.

Carbon Black

Source: synthetic. Use: black coloring in confectionery. Vegetarian should be careful and it is advised not to consume.

Carmine (Cochineal)

Source: insect. A crimson pigment derived from a Mexican species of scale insect (coccus cacti). Use: coloring in red apple sauce, fruit cocktail, confections, baked goods, meats, and species. Not Vegetarian


Sources: seaweed and fresh moss. Use: as a substitute for gelatin (an emulsifier, stabilizer, and food thickener). This is found in some ice-creams produced locally.


Source: sugar or glucose. Use: coloring foods, beverages, and confectionery items.


Source: milk, hence dairy. Uses: stabilizer for confectionery, texturizer for ice cream and sherbets, or as a replacement for egg albumin. Because it is precipitated by acid or by animal or vegetable enzymes, supervision. Catalase - Source: cow liver use: coagulant. Not Vegetarian

Cholic Acid

Source: animal bile. Use: emulsitier in dried egg whites. Not Vegetarian.

Choline Bitartrate

Source: animal tissue. Use: nutrient (B-complex vitamin). Not Vegetarian.

Citric Acid

Sources: fruits and vegetables, molasses and grain. Use: antioxidant, sugar solubitizing in ice cream and sherbet, fruit juice drinks, and canned and jarred products, including jelly, cheese, candy, carbonated beverages, instant potatoes, wheat, chips, potato sticks, wine.

Civet, Absolute

Source: cats. Use: flavoring for beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods and chewing gum. Not Vegetarian.

Cocoa Butter

Source: cocoa bean. Use: chocolate coatings.

Coconut Oil

Source: coconut. Use: In the manufacture of edible fats, chocolate, and candies; in baking in place of lard. Requires supervision (see Oil).

Confectionery Glaze

- See Resinous Glaze and Shellac.

Corn Starch

Source: Corn.

Cream of Tartar (Tartaric Acid)

Source: Argol, the stony sediment of wine casks. Once the liquid residue has been removed from the argols by aging one year and drying. the argols are permissible. Use: in a variety of confections and in the preparation of baked goods.

Cysteine. L form

Source: an Amino Acid, human and horse, or synthetic (sometimes from deceased women). Use: nutrient in bakery products.


Source: starch. Use: prevents caking of sugar in candy, encapsulates flavor oils in powdered mixes, thickener.

Dextrose (corn syrup)

Source: starch. Use: sweetener, coloring agent in beverages, ice cream, candy and baked goods.

Dilauryl Thiodiproprionate

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Dough Conditioners

Source: calcium stearoyl~2-Lactylate, or animal fat. Use: to improve the texture of bread. Often it will contain mono and Diglycerides. Not Vegetarian.


Source: fats (animal or vegetable, synthetic.) Use: binding oils and water, thickening, a preservative in baked goods, reducing ice crystals and air bubbles in ice cream. Should be Careful-unless it is mentioned safe for vegetarian.

Erythrobic Acid

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Eschalots (shallot)

Source: an onion-like plant. Bulbs used like garlic for flavoring.

Ethyl Vanillin

Source: synthetic, bark of spruce tree, or wine alcohol. Use: as a flavor instead of vanilla or to fortify it. Careful!!!


Source: animal or vegetable. Substances that are solid at room temperature are fats; those that are liquid at room temperature are oils. Careful!- unless, the source is mentioned as vegetarian sources.

                                                                           Fatty Acids
Source: animal or vegetable fats. Use: emulsifiers, binder, lubricants. Requires precaution especially if the source is not mentioned on the label.

Source: a type of hazelnut; when raw or dry roasted.


Source: fruits and other plants such as potatoes and corn (see dextrose). Use: sweetener, coloring agent.


Source: see mono- and Diglycerides.(Not Vegetarian)


Source: gelatin, animal or vegetable oil, sometimes used in cereals. Also as a flavor enhancer. Requires careful attention, unless the source is mentioned.

Glycerol Monostearate

Source: glycerol monostearate may be of animal origin. Requires careful attention, especially if the source is not mentioned. Better not consumed.


Source: beef fat, petroleum, or vegetable. Use: as a solvent or humectant (maintains the desired level of moisture). Not vegetarian

Gum Arabic, Gum Acacia

Source: trees. Use: thickening agent, emulsifier, stabilizer.

Gum Base

Source: trees (chicle, natural rubber, etc.) synthetic butyl rubber, paraffin, polyethylene, vinyl, resin, glycerin, glycerol monostearate. Use: in the manufacture of chewing gums. In general, not vegetarian, unless specified!

Gum Guaiac

Source: trees. Use: antioxidants.

Guar Gum

Source: plants. Use: extender for pectin, stabilizer and thickener for spreads, syrups, sauces, salad dressing and licorice.

Gum Tragacanth

Source: shrubs. Use: thickening agent. Herb derived from green leaves or herbaceous part of the plants.

Invert Sugar (inversol nulomoline colorose)

Source: cane sugar. Use: sweetener.

Invertase (invertin)

Source: yeast. Use: preparation of invert sugar from sucrose.

Lactic Acid

Sources: molasses, corn starch, glucose, molasses. Use: preservative, flavoring. (Lactic acid can also be produced from whey, in which case it is dairy, but its use is restricted to ice cream and cream cheese).

Lactose (milk sugar)

Source: whey. Use: sweetener, humectant, and nutrient.

Lauric Fats

Source: coconut, palm oil. Use: with or instead of cocoa butter.


Source: soybeans, corn oil. Use: emulsifier and preservative, especially in chocolate. Lipids - Source: animal or vegetable fats. Use: shortening, flavoring, thickener. Unless specified, normally not vegetarian. Otherwise, it is mentioned Soya Lecithin.


- see Albumin.

Lysine, L and DL Forms

Sources: casein, fibrin, blood. Usually synthesized. Not vegetarian, unless, its source specified.

Magnesium Stearate

Source: stearic acid. From tallow, vegetable oils or synthetic. Use: anti-caking agent. Not vegetarian

Malt Syrup

Source: malt and barley. Use: emulsifier and starch dissolving.


Source: fungi. Use: sweetener.


Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Methyl P Hydroxy Benzoate


- see Methylparaben.

Mono - and Diglycerides

Source: animal and vegetable. Use: stabilizer, emulsifier, softener, preservative. Most are animal products. Mono- and Diglycerides do not necessarily have to be listed in the ingredients. Not Vegetarian

Monosodium Glutamate

Source: sugar, plants, beets and corn. Use: flavor enhancer.


Source: deer glands, synthetic. Use: in flavorings, for beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, and chewing gum. Now usually it is produced synthetically.

Natural Fruit Flavors

Concentrated under vacuum or freeze dried. Concentrated fruit pulp that is used in confectionery usually requires fortification with some synthetic flavor. Can contain grape juice, as well as many other non-kosher substances. Requires careful attention.

Oil of Lemon

Source: lemon peel.

Oil of Rose

Source: distilled from fresh rose petals. Comes mostly from Bulgarian damask rose.

Oil of Caraway

Source: seeds of Carum Carui. Grown in Holland and Central to Southern Europe. Flavoring for chocolate and coatings.

Oil of Cardamon (grains of paradise)

Source: Alleppy Cardamon, trees from India. Use: enhance the flavor of ground coffee, butter, chocolate, liquor, spice and vanilla flavoring.

Oil of Cassia (Cassia Bark)

Source: leaves and twigs of the chinese cinnamon. Use: for cocoa flavor in biscuits, cakes, ice cream and beverages.

Oil of Celery

Source: celery plant. It comes primarily from France. Use: usually as flavoring for cocoa, chocolate, and other confections.

Oil of Cinnamon

Source: under the bark of the Cinnamonum Zeylanicum tree. Found in Seychelles and Ceylon. Use: to enhance fruit flavorings. Oil of Peppermint - Source: dried plant leaves. Use: flavoring.

Oleic Acid

Source: fats and oils (animal or vegetable). Use: deforming, flavoring. Requires Careful attention. Not Vegetarian safe.


Source: Glycerides, stearic acid. Use: prevents oil from clouding. Not vegetarian.

Ox Bile

Source: ox bile. Use: preservative and emulsifier in dried egg whites. Definitely, Not Vegeterian

                                                                            Ox Gall
- see Ox Bile.

Pepper Cream

Source: herb. Use: spice. Requires di-glycerides or other emulsifiers to mix. As it is mixed with di-glycerides- it is not appropriate/safe for Vegetarians


Source: enzyme, usually extracted from hog stomachs, but can be synthetic. Use: coagulant in cheese. Can be produced from kosher animals. Not Vegetarian.

Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids

Source: fats and oils, animal or vegetable. Not Vegetarian.

Polysorbate 60, 65, 80

Source: stearic acid (also called Tween). Use: emulsifiers, especially in "non-dairy" products. Not Vegetarian.

Potassium Bi sulfite

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Potassium Caseinate

Source: milk. Use: stabilizer and texturizer.

Potassium Metabisulfite

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Potassium Sorbate

Source: berries or synthetic. Use: preservative.

Propionic Acid

Source: synthetic or may be made from cheese. Use: mold inhibitor, preservative. Need to be very careful, unless its sources are specified.

Propyl Gallate

Source: synthetic or from nuts produced by insects. Use: preservative.

Proplyene Glycol (Alginate)

Source: synthetic. Use: emulsifier, stabilizer, solvent.


Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Release Agents

Source: oils, mineral oil, mono-glycerides or synthetic. Use: keeps heated foods from sticking to equipment, utensils, and packaging. These need not be listed in the ingredients. Not Vegetarian.

Resinous Glaze

Source: insect secretion. Use: coating candies and pills. While there are authorities who permit these glazes on the grounds that they are non-edible, there are other authorities who forbid them.(Not Vegetarian)


Source: animal enzymes. Derived from the lining membranes of the stomach of suckling calves. Use: coagulant and curdling agent especially in cheese and other dairy products. A vegetable enzyme similar to rennet is available as a substitute, but even if it is used, supervision is required. Hard cheese made by gentiles without constant supervision,. (see cheese article) Not vegetarian.

Serum Albumin

                                                          Source: blood. See Albumin. Not vegetarian

 Rennin - see Rennet.


Source: insect secretion. Use: in glaze for confectionery products and in chocolate panning. See Resinous Glazes. Shortenings - Source: oil. Use: to make baked goods light and flaky. Factories often make both animal and vegetable shortenings on the same equipment. Not vegetarian.

Sodium Alginate

Source: seaweed or kelp. Use: as a stabilizer.

Sodium Ascorbate

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Sodium Benzoate

Source: synthetic origin. Use: preservative.

Sodium Bisulfite

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Sodium Casinate

Source: milk and cheese. Use: texturizer in "non-dairy" creamers and instant mashed potatoes.

Sodium Citrate

Source: synthetic. Use: emulsifier and buffer in processed produce.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

Source: synthetic. Use: detergent, whipping agent, an emulsifier (in egg products) and surfactant (in beverages).

Sodium Meta Bisulfate
Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

                                                                   Sodium Propionate
Source: synthetic origin or rarely it is made from cheese. Use: mold preventative.
Sodium Nitrate
Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

Sodium Sorbate

Source: synthetic or from corn. Use: preservative.

Sodium Sulfite

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.


Source: animal or vegetable. Use: in chewing gum. Not Vegetarian.

Sorbic Acid

Source: berries, corn or synthetic. Use: mold inhibitor.

Sorbitan Monostearate

Source: Stearic acid. Use: emulsifier, defamer, flavor disperser.  Span - see Polysorbate.  
Non Vegetarian

Spearmint Oil

Source: the herb mentha viriais. Use: primarily as flavoring in chewing gum.

                                                                           Sperm oil
Source: whale. Use: release agent and lubricant in baking pans. Not Vegetarian.
Source: dried vegetable product derived from any part of the plant, whether rot, stem, bark, fruit, bud or seed.

                                                                  Stannous Chloride
Source: synthetic. Use: preservative.

                                                                        Stearic Acid
Source: animal or vegetable oil. Use: in butter and vanilla flavoring, softener in chewing gum. Not vegetarian.

Stearyl Lactylic Acid

Source: fats and oils. Use: emulsifier. Not Vegetarian.

Sulfur Dioxide

Source: synthetic gas. Use: preservative.

Tartaric Acid

see Cream of Tartar.

Tween and Span

see Polysorbate.

Thiodipropionic Acid

Source: synthetic. Use: preservative, or from cheese.


Source: synthetic, or soybeans. Use: preservative, nutrient (vitamin E).

Tricalcium Phosphate

Source: synthetic. Use: anti-caking agent, bleaching agent.


Source: herb. Use: spice. As a powder: (Often used in its oleo resin form for use in pickling brine and mustard with Glycerides added.) To be very careful, as it comes from abroad and is found in confectionery (biscuits etc) and Glycerides (non-vegetarian).


Source: bean. Use: flavoring, it may be processed with glycerine. Be careful as it comes from abroad and its better not to be consumed.


Source: bark of spruce tree. Use: flavoring.

                                                                     Vegetable Shortening
- see Shortening.

                                                                         Vegetable Oil
- see Oil.

Vegetable Gums
Use: substitute for gelatin in desserts and candies. Also see gum.


Source: milk, hence dairy. Use: binder and flavoring agent. Since it is obtained in the manufacture of cheese.

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Vitamins, Supplements & Homeopathic Medications

Many questions are being asked about the sources of  vitamins and which vitamins and supplements are acceptable? 

If we look at the history of vitamins, we find that people have turned to vitamins and supplements as a form of preventative medicine for many years. In the late 1800’s, in China, when metal or porcelain rollers replaced the stone rollers for the hulling of rice, they found that although the rice looked better polished, it now lacked the hull and as a result, caused outbreaks of beri-beri in China. When doctors replaced this missing nutrient, they called it a vita mine. "Vita" for life and "amine" for nitrogen. There is no doubt that without the intake of vitamins, a body could not properly function. However, the question has always been "How much"? Before the industrial revolution, when most food was not cooked or processed, people often obtained sufficient nutrients from their food alone. Today, however, so many nutrients are removed from the food that the FDA requires much of it replaced artificially in order to even be deemed " wholesome food".

Since we rely so heavily on the additives or intake of vitamins today, we must be aware of the definitions of vitamins and supplements and understand their sources.

The definition of a VITAMIN is any one of several essential organic substances your body needs in small amounts for normal functions.

The definition of a DIETARY SUPPLEMENT as defined by federal law is something that you use to supplement your diet, rather than as a whole food. This may be taken in pill, tablet, capsule or liquid form and qualifies as a vitamin, mineral, herb or other amino acid.

The definition of HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE is from the Greek words "Homeo" (similar) and "Pathos" (suffering from diseases). It is derived from the theory that "like cures like", which means that in order to cure symptoms, a person should be exposed to the same type of symptoms from an outside source. This idea was originated by Dr. Samuel Hahneman in the late 1700’s. The one remedy that most closely fits the symptoms of a person’s problem is called the "Similimum". One of the unusual aspects of homeopathy is that it is usually extremely diluted, to the point that many doctors feel that is is quite useless. U.S. News reported in February of 1997 that in Lyon, France, a duck was killed for Oscillococcinum which was derived from it to act as a flu medication. "Most remedies are diluted down to 30x, or a strength of 1/10 multiplied by itself 30 times. That means that one drop of the active substance is diluted in nine drops of alcohol or water, then a drop of the new solution is further diluted by nine drops, and so on, 30 times. It has been estimated that a 30x dilution is the equivalent of one drop in a container more than 50 times the size of the earth. This often will make the problematic ingredient Botel (annulled).

Some Common Problems in Vitamins, Supplements and Additives

a.) Certain vitamins do not have a natural food source, such as glucosamine. Commercially available sources of glucosamine are derived from Chitin, the specially processed exoskeleton of shrimp, lobsters and crabs.

b.) Glucosamine Sulfate, Cartilage Extracts - Are cartilage extracts including purified chondroitin sulfate, sea cucumber, green liped mussel and shark cartilage are popular nutritional supplements.

c.) Calcium - May be derived from oyster shells

d.) Vitamin A, D - Can come from shark oil

e.) Vitamin B - May come from Pork liver.

f.) Zinc - May be derived from liver or shellfish

g.) Binders, Coating Agents - gelatin is often used

h.) Lubricants - Glycerin is common

i.) Flavoring - Can contain grape juice etc.

j.) Emulsifier - Whey, oils, lactose(lactose is used as the base for a large percentage of prescription drugs)

k.) Alcohol - May come from a non-kosher wine solvent

l.) Brandy - Often used in flower-derived- remedies.

m.) Magnesium Stearate - A lubricant from  animals 

n.) Pancreatic Enzyme - From a hog pancreas

o.) Royal Jelly - Derived directly from the queen bee secretion. (unlike pure bee pollen, propolis or beeswax)

Note: Most of the above can be produced synthetically as well.

From this it is quite clear that vitamins and supplements require proper attention and inspection. One of the purpose of taking vitamins is for the well being but whether this question is debatable or not as here the health is concerned, this does not mean that we take whatever has been prescribed. There fortunately a number of vitamins available and which are mostly OTC (Over the Counter products) which are animal free.

Tablets - In tablets, ingredients  include magnesium stearate, calcium stearate and stearic acid. These inactive ingredients serve as lubricants which allow the medicinal powders to adequately "flow’ through the processing equipment. The stearates also make it easier for the finished tablet to "release" from the punches and dies at the final compression stage where the tablet is formed. These "stearic" ingredients can come from either animal or vegetable derivatives. 

Gelatin Capsules - Gelatin is an ingredient that is derived from an animal. Currently all gelatin capsules on the market come from animal sources. 

Vitamins -
Vitamins can contain various problematic ingredients and a full discussion of this is beyond the scope of this article.

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